CannaTrials adheres to evidence-based medicine – making statements based on medical evidence.
This page is excerpted and quoted from the National Academies of Science, Engineering, and Medicine. A Committee of over 40 experts, researchers, and reviewers in The Health and Medicine Division published a 486 page report in 2017 entitled “The Health Effects of Cannabis and Cannabinoids: The Current State of Evidence and Recommendations for Research.”
If you would like to access the entire report you may do so by clicking this link.
Medical Marijuana and Pregnancy Complications for the Mother
“The committee did not identify a good- to fair quality systematic review that reported on the association between cannabis exposure and stillbirth or spontaneous abortion.
Gunn et al. (2016) found no association between marijuana use and fetal distress based on two studies (Berenson et al., 1996; Witter and Niebyl, 1990).
The assessment of the literature on pregnancy complications for the mother relied primarily on Gunn et al. (2016). Of the possible complications, only the increased risk of anemia had a significant association with exposure to cannabis (pooled odds ratio [pOR], 1.36; 95% CI = 1.10–1.69). Mixed findings about an association with cannabis use occurred in studies of precipitate labor and the manual removal of the placenta. No associations were found between in utero exposure to cannabis and the following health outcomes: maternal diabetes, rupture of membranes, premature onset of labor, use of prenatal care, duration of labor, placental abruption, secondary arrest of labor, elevated blood pressure, hyperemesis gravidarum, maternal bleeding after 20 weeks, antepartum or postpartum hemorrhage, maternal weight gain, maternal postnatal issues, duration of maternal hospital stay, or hormone concentrations (Gunn et al., 2016).
Despite identifying one good- to fair-quality systematic review addressing pregnancy complications for the mother, the findings of the review must be interpreted with caution. The review relied on a primary literature that is limited in the number, quality, and rigor of the studies that have been carried out to date. By and large, the existing studies have been retrospective cohort studies, many of which looked at a large number of outcomes without biological plausibility or a biological mechanism guiding the test of the hypothesis. For example, the association identified between anemia and cannabis use in pregnancy arises in the absence of a clear mechanism by which these factors would be related. In addition, many studies were underpowered to detect relatively rare pregnancy complications. Therefore, though Gunn’s review reports “no association” for the vast majority of conditions selected, it remains unclear whether this represents a type II error. Ethical challenges obviously preclude the ability to conduct randomized controlled trials of cannabis use in pregnancy, thereby precluding the ability to establish causal relationships. Logistical and financial constraints make even prospective cohort studies of adequate size and duration challenging to fund and implement. Even with rigorous study designs, comorbid tobacco and polysubstance use often confound the interpretation of the data. Such considerations markedly diminish the confidence with which the committee can draw conclusions regarding how much risk can be attributed to cannabis in the area of adverse maternal events.
CONCLUSION 10-1 There is limited evidence of a statistical association between maternal cannabis smoking and pregnancy complications for the mother. “
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